Murray Valley encephalitis
This year, 25 infections have been confirmed nationally, with the states of New South Wales, Victoria, Western Australia and the Northern Territory particularly affected. This mosquito-borne virus is common in Australia and Papua New Guinea. Pay extra attention to mosquito repellent.
Since the beginning of this year, about 42,500 infections and 27 deaths have been reported in Bagmati province in the Kathmandu Valley. The capital Kathmandu is particularly affected. The other cases were in Dang Deukhuri and Rupandehi districts in Lumbini province in the Terai. In 2022, about 54,800 people fell ill and 88 died. Apart from the Kathmandu valley, districts in the high mountains were again affected. Most infections were registered in September. The disease was first confirmed in Nepal in 2004, with only small outbreaks observed in the south of the country in subsequent years. The largest outbreak to date, with approximately 18,000 infections and 6 deaths, was recorded in 2019. Protection against mosquitoes, which are mainly active during the day. The vaccine is available from February 2023.
High risk of intestinal infections, especially diarrhoeal diseases, cholera, typhoid and hepatitis A, which are transmitted in the same way. Rabies from stray dogs is common. Observe adequate protective measures such as hygiene and vaccinations.
Afghanistan is one of the few countries where poliomyelitis remains endemic. Five people have fallen ill in Nangarhar province since mid-May this year. 2 infections were reported in 2022. In 2021, 4 cases were registered, in 2020 there were 56 cases. In 2019, 29 cases were reported. In 2018, 21 cases were recorded. A total of 14 infections were reported in 2017. In 2016, 13 people fell ill, up from 20 in 2015. Take adequate protective measures such as hygiene and vaccination. According to WHO regulations, all persons (locals and tourists) staying in the country for more than 4 weeks must have a polio vaccination when leaving the country. Vaccinations must be given 4 weeks to one year prior to departure and must be documented on an internationally valid vaccination card.
Diarrhoeal disease risk nationwide. In early May, an epidemic was reported in the governorate of Qina (Upper Egypt) with more than 380 people sickened. The source of the infection was ice cream sold by street vendors. Hepatitis A is also very common. Raw salads and undercooked foods should be avoided. Tap water should not be drunk. Observe food hygiene and vaccination protection.
Since its first appearance in February 2006, highly pathogenic avian influenza A(H5N1) has killed more than 34 million animals nationwide. At least 15 provinces have been affected by outbreaks, mostly in the more densely populated north. The WHO has confirmed a total of 359 human illnesses with 120 deaths. No infections have been confirmed since 2018. In 2017, 3 people fell ill and there was one death. In 2015, 147 people fell ill and 41 people died. In 2016, 10 infections were reported by the end of September, and 4 people died. Contact with live or freshly slaughtered poultry and poultry excreta should be avoided.
In the warm season, there is a risk of tick-borne diseases, including TBE in some parts of the country, which can lead to encephalitis. Take care to protect against tick attachment. When in an infected area, vaccination may be recommended after an individual risk assessment.
Since the beginning of July 2022, 3 vaccine-derived poliovirus type 2 (cVDPV2) infections have been reported. Due to the presence of cVDPV2, the country is formally classified as a country with a potential risk of international spread of the pathogen. However, confirmation from the WHO is still awaited. As a result, all persons (locals and tourists) who have been in the country for more than 4 weeks should be able to present a polio vaccination upon departure. Vaccinations must be given 4 weeks to one year prior to departure and must be documented on an internationally valid vaccination card. Observe protection by vaccination.
Diarrhoeal disease risk nationwide. Since 2006, cholera epidemics have occurred in many provinces, including in poorly sanitised areas of the capital Luanda, with a peak during the rainy season. Observe hygiene.
After several cases were confirmed in the UK in May 2022, other countries reported infections. According to press reports, a suspicious case was reported in the province of Buenos Aires. The person concerned had previously resided in Spain. There are now approximately 1130 confirmed infections and 2 deaths nationwide. The virus is found in Central and West Africa, while cases outside Africa have so far been attributed to travellers or imported animals. Human-to-human transmission occurs through direct contact with the body fluids of an infected person or with objects contaminated with the virus.
Since the beginning of this year, around 112,110 infections have been confirmed and 61 people have died. The number of new infections has been declining since the beginning of April. Last year, 750 people fell ill. Take care to protect yourself against daytime mosquitoes. The vaccine is available from February 2023.
Diarrhoeal disease risk nationwide There are also individual and group botulism diseases, where some bacterial toxins e.g. from home-grown foods can lead to severe nervous paralysis. Maintain food and drinking water hygiene.
Diarrhoeal disease risk nationwide. There is an outbreak of cholera. From the end of August 2022 in Oromia, Somali, SNNP and Sidamaca regions. More than 11,400 infections with 156 deaths have been reported. Observe hygiene and, if necessary, vaccination against cholera.
Due to the increasing number of monkeypox cases worldwide, authorities have adjusted entry regulations. Before entering the country, travelers must fill out an electronic form for a “Monkeypox Registration Certificate” (www.addislink.com/monkeypox-registration-for-ethiopia/) and will receive a QR code to present upon entry.
Source – https://crm.de/aktuelles/