Current incidence of the disease at a glance, recommendations and mandatory vaccination by country 28.3.2024

28. 3. 2024

Dengue

Argentina

Since the beginning of this year, around 102,900 cases and 69 deaths have been recorded. Last year, around 130,290 infections were confirmed and 75 people died. In 2022, 750 people will fall ill. Take care to protect yourself against daytime mosquitoes. Vaccination is possible from February 2023.

Oropouche fever

Brazil

Since the beginning of this year, approximately 2,070 infections have been confirmed in the state of Amazonas. In late February, an illness was reported in the city of Rio de Janeiro. Since early February, additional cases have been reported in the states of Rondonia, Acre and Roraima. The virus is transmitted mainly by nocturnal mosquitoes. The disease leads to an acute febrile syndrome involving joint and limb pain as well as vomiting. Pay attention to mosquito protection.

Ticks

Estonia

Tick-borne diseases are a risk in the warm season. The first infection this year was reported at the end of March. The number of cases has been steadily increasing in recent years. For years, the Baltic States have reported the highest number of TBE cases in Europe. Transmission is also possible with unpasteurised milk. Observe protection against ticks, vaccinate if at risk.

Malaria

India

This January, 9,095 cases were recorded nationwide. A man died. Most of the infections originate from the states of Chhattisgarh and Jharkhand. Last year, around 223,960 cases were registered and 72 people died. Very good protection against mosquitoes is always important, it is usually advisable to take emergency medication and depending on the outbreak, chemoprophylaxis should be discussed.

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Chambers

Health authorities confirmed the outbreak in early February. Since then, around 320 local infections and 12 deaths have been recorded. A boat carrying 25 people from Tanzania had arrived in the capital Moroni earlier. Several people on board had symptoms and there was also one death. The authorities have taken measures to prevent the spread. Pay careful attention to food and drinking water hygiene and consider vaccination if necessary.

Malaria

Madagascar

The contagion from last year continues this year. More than 525 000 cases and 42 deaths have been reported since the beginning of this year. Very good protection against mosquitoes is always important, it is usually advisable to take emergency medication and depending on the situation of the outbreak and the route of travel, chemoprophylaxis is also recommended.

diarrhoeal diseases

intestinal infections

Egypt

Diarrhoeal disease risk nationwide. The Robert Koch Institute has reported an increase in enterohaemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) infections among returning travellers, particularly from Hurghada. Hepatitis A is also very common. Eating raw salads and undercooked foods should be avoided. Tap water should not be drunk. Observe food hygiene and vaccination protection.

Safety notice

Safety notice

Egypt

A warning is issued against travel to the north of the Sinai Peninsula, the Egyptian-Israeli border area (except Taba) and remote areas of the Sahara. Unaccompanied individual tours and overland trips to the south of the Sinai Peninsula are not recommended (www.auswaertiges-amt.de).

Vector-related infections

Chikungunya

Brazil

Around 111,440 suspected cases and 36 deaths have been reported this year. In the state of Minas Gerais, the authorities declared a state of health at the end of January this year due to the epidemiological situation. Last year, around 256 930 suspected cases were registered nationwide and around 146 250 infections were confirmed. 106 people died. The number of cases has increased significantly compared to the same period last year. In 2022, a total of about 265,300 suspected cases were reported. 75 people died. Health authorities reported the first local infections in mid-2014. Since then, the infection has spread across the country. Pay attention to mosquito protection.

Vector-related infections

Dengue

Brazil

There is a high risk of dengue fever throughout the country. Since the beginning of this year, around 2 464 265 suspected cases and 561 confirmed deaths have been registered nationwide. The number of cases has more than tripled compared to the same period last year. Authorities in 7 of the 27 states (Acre, Goiás, Minas Gerais, Espírito Santo, Rio de Janeiro, Santa Catarina and the Federal District) have declared a health emergency due to the epidemiological situation. Last year, around 3 028 600 suspected cases were registered nationwide and 1 094 people died. In 2022, approximately 2,363,500 illnesses and approximately 930 deaths were recorded. Take care to protect against mosquitoes, which are mostly diurnal. Vaccination is possible from February 2023.

Vector-related infections

Oropouche fever

Brazil

Since the beginning of this year, approximately 2,070 infections have been confirmed in the state of Amazonas. In late February, an illness was reported in the city of Rio de Janeiro. Since early February, additional cases have been reported in the states of Rondonia, Acre and Roraima. The virus is transmitted mainly by nocturnal mosquitoes. The disease leads to an acute febrile syndrome involving joint and limb pain as well as vomiting. Pay attention to mosquito protection.

diarrhoeal diseases

intestinal infections

Dominican Republic

Diarrhoeal disease risk nationwide. The Dominican Republic is one of the holiday destinations with the highest number of cases of traveler’s diarrhea. As of October 2022, approximately 110 cholera infections have been reported. A man died. Most were registered in the capital, Santo Domingo. Take care of hygiene and consider vaccination if necessary.

Vector-related infections

Dengue

Dominican Republic

Last year, around 25 470 suspected cases were registered. 23 people died. In 2022, around 10,440 suspected cases were reported. 42 people died. The number of cases roughly tripled in 2022 compared to the previous year. Particularly affected were the municipalities of Santiago, Santo Domingo de Guzmán, Santo Domingo Norte, Santo Domingo Este and San José de Ocoa. In 2021, approximately 3,750 infections and 26 deaths were registered. Pay attention to mosquito protection. Vaccination is possible from February 2023.

Safety notice

Input requirements

Dominican Republic

Dominican government since 15. September 2023 until further notice, completely closing the border with Haiti. Travel by land, air or sea between the two countries is currently not possible (www.auswaertiges-amt.de).

diarrhoeal diseases

intestinal infections

India

Diarrhoeal disease risk nationwide. Cholera can be expected regionally. Typhoid, paratyphoid and orally transmitted forms of hepatitis are endemic throughout India. Anthrax occurs again and again in local people in both cutaneous and intestinal forms. Observe hygiene and vaccination protection.

Dengue

India

Last year, about 234 430 illnesses and 91 deaths were reported nationwide. The highest number of cases were reported in the states of Delhi, West Bengal, Chattisgharh, Bihar, Uttar Pradesh, Telangana, Maharashtra, Punjab, Karnataka and Gujarat. Approximately 233,250 infections and 303 deaths were recorded in 2022. Take care to protect yourself against the daily vectors of mosquitoes (Aedes species). Vaccination is possible from February 2023.

encephalitis

India

In the first 2 months of this year, 22 cases of Japanese encephalitis (JE) were recorded. In 2023, about 1,100 cases were officially reported nationwide. 56 people died. The state of Assam has been particularly affected. In 2022, 1109 cases and 130 deaths were reported. The highest number of infections was again recorded in Assam state. Perform exposure prophylaxis and vaccination if necessary!

Malaria

India

This January, 9,095 cases were recorded nationwide. A man died. Most of the infections originate from the states of Chhattisgarh and Jharkhand. Last year, around 223,960 cases were registered and 72 people died. Very good protection against mosquitoes is always important, it is usually advisable to take emergency medication and depending on the outbreak, chemoprophylaxis should be discussed.

Safety notice

India

Travel to Jammu, Kashmir and Manipur is strongly discouraged at present. Always avoid demonstrations and large gatherings of people and follow the instructions of the security forces and keep up to date with media reports during your stay (www.auswaertiges-amt.de).

Infections, various

Rabies

India

In March this year, one illness and three deaths were reported in the state of Manipur (NO). Last year, deaths were reported in several states. In September, the first death was reported in the state of Goa since 2017. India is one of the countries in the world with the highest number of animal and human cases. In 2022, a total of about 310 people died. The main transmitter is a (stray) dog. Large cities are also affected. In case of suspicious contact with an animal, seek medical attention immediately and pay attention to the use of modern vaccines for tissue culture. Preventive vaccinations are recommended for all passengers.

diarrhoeal diseases

intestinal infections

Indonesia

Diarrhoeal disease risk nationwide. Cholera epidemics are reported sporadically in West Papua and typhoid fever can be expected. Continue to maintain hygiene and protection by vaccination against typhoid fever.

Infections, oral

poliomyelitis

Indonesia

Last year, a total of 6 vaccine-derived poliovirus type 2 (cVDPV2) infections were confirmed on the islands of Sumatra and Java. A child on the island of Sumatra was already sick in November 2022. This is the first polio detection in the country since 2019. The emergence of VDPVs makes a country at potential risk of international spread of the pathogen. As a result, all people (locals and tourists) who have been in the country for more than 4 weeks should be able to show proof of polio vaccination when leaving the country. Vaccinations must be given 4 weeks to one year prior to departure and must be documented on an internationally valid vaccination card.

Safety notice

Indonesia

Indonesia held elections in February 2024. The final result is not expected until March. After the last elections in 2019, demonstrations resulted in riots that resulted in injuries and deaths. Always avoid demonstrations, rallies and large gatherings of people and follow the instructions of the security forces and keep up to date with media reports during your stay (www.auswaertiges-amt.de).

Bird flu

Indonesia

Since November 2003, highly pathogenic avian influenza caused by influenza A(H5N1) has spread throughout the country with local and regional outbreaks in poultry. More than 10 million animals have fallen victim to animal disease so far. Since mid-2003, 200 human cases of the disease have been reported in Indonesia, of which 168 have been fatal. The last human infections were confirmed on the island of Bali in September 2017. Almost all of those affected had direct contact with sick or dead animals. Contact with live poultry or sick people should be avoided and hygiene should be maintained.

Ticks

Austria

In the warm season, there is a risk of tick-borne disease and, in much of the country, TBE, which can lead to encephalitis. Take care to protect against tick attachment. If you are in an infected area, vaccination may be recommended after an individual risk assessment.

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South Africa

Since the beginning of December last year, 117 suspected cases have been reported and 6 infections have been confirmed. Limpopo province is affected. Last year, around 1390 suspected cases were registered, 199 infections were confirmed and 47 people died. In addition to Gauteng province, the Free State, Mpumalanga and Limpopo provinces were also affected. Take care of hygiene and consider vaccination if necessary.

South Africa

The electricity crisis continues with frequent and prolonged power cuts. These lead to temporary power outages, including in private accommodation, shops, banks and ATMs, public lighting, traffic lights and security systems. Power outages can also affect water supply and quality and continue to lead to restrictions on internet connectivity and mobile communications. Petrol stations may also be temporarily affected. For safety reasons, the South African National Park Authority advises travellers to avoid using the so-called “no-go” signs when entering Kruger National Park. Numbi gates and used alternative entry gates. To get to Addo Elephant Park from Port Elizabeth (Gqeberha), we recommend not using the R335 via Motherwell and alternatively use the N2 via Colchester (www.auswaertiges-amt.de).

Rabies

South Africa

Last year, 11 cases were confirmed, one in Limpopo province and five each in KwaZulu-Natal and Eastern Cape provinces. In 2022, 13 confirmed infections and 6 suspected cases were reported nationwide. The Eastern Cape, Limpopo and KwaZulu-Natal provinces were also particularly affected. A sharp increase in rabid dogs has been observed nationwide since 2022. The most common source of infection is dog bites. If such contact occurs, seek medical attention immediately; if the risk is foreseeable and the stay is prolonged, preventive vaccination is recommended.

intestinal infections

Tanzania

Diarrhoeal disease risk nationwide. Localised outbreaks of cholera occur regularly. Take care with hygiene and consider vaccinations if necessary.

Requirement for initial vaccination

Tanzania

The risk of contracting yellow fever in Tanzania is classified by WHO as low and vaccination is generally not recommended. According to the official entry vaccination regulation (ITH 2020), yellow fever vaccination is mandatory for persons over 1 year of age when entering from endemic areas. Experience shows that regulations change frequently and the information provided by different authorities varies. The regulations are sometimes interpreted and dealt with differently at some airports (Kilimanjaro Airport in Arusha) or by individual border officials. Contrary to official information, a yellow fever vaccination is often required when entering Zanzibar. The official statement of the Zanzibar Ministry of Health is published on the website of the Federal Foreign Office.

Malaria

Tanzania

After being considered almost eliminated on the island group of Zanzibar and Pemba for many years, the number of cases has been on the rise again in recent years. The number of cases in Zanzibar has risen sharply since October last year. Very good protection against mosquitoes should always be maintained, and chemoprophylaxis is recommended.

Poliomyelitis

Tanzania

The first vaccine-derived poliovirus type 2 (cVDPV2) infection was reported in July last year. Further infections were reported in early September and late December. Due to the presence of cVDPV2, the country is formally classified as a country with a potential risk of international spread of the pathogen. As a result, all people (locals and tourists) who stay in the country for more than 4 weeks must present a polio vaccination when they leave the country. Vaccinations must be given 4 weeks to one year prior to departure and must be documented on an internationally valid vaccination card. Observe protection by vaccination.

Intestinal infections

Thailand

Risk of diarrhoeal diseases nationwide, smaller cholera outbreaks can be expected locally. Take care of hygiene.

Dengue

Thailand

Since the beginning of this year, 11 180 cases and 5 deaths have been recorded. Last year, approximately 159,220 infections and 179 deaths were reported. Trat, Nan, Chanthaburi, Rayong and Mae Hong Son provinces were particularly affected, as was the capital Bangkok. Take care to protect yourself against daytime mosquitoes. Vaccination is possible from February 2023.

Zika virus

Thailand

At the end of November last year, a Dutch tourist and a couple from Germany fell ill after spending time in southern Thailand. Since the start of this year, 19 people have fallen ill in the North East. Last year, more than 750 cases were reported in the country. The infection was first detected in Thailand in 2012. Pay attention to mosquito protection.

Hepatitis A

USA

According to the CDC, there has been an increase in nationwide outbreaks since 2016, with infections spreading from person to person. Those affected are mainly homeless and addicted people. Approximately 44,960 infections and 424 deaths have now been reported from 37 states. Most infections were reported in the states of Kentucky, Florida, Ohio, Tennessee, Georgia, Alabama and Indiana. Pay careful attention to hygiene measures and consider vaccinations if necessary.

Sun protection

USA

Starting in early 2021, the sale of so-called reef-toxic sunscreens, including products that contain oxybenzone (BP3) and octinoxate, is banned in the state of Hawaii. These substances are suspected of having a harmful effect on corals and other marine life.

Intestinal infections

Vietnam

Diarrhoeal disease risk nationwide, cholera is also endemic. Take care of food and drinking water hygiene.

Dengue

Vietnam

Since the beginning of this year, around 11 235 cases have been registered nationwide. Contrary to the general downward trend, the number of cases in the capital Hanoi has increased significantly. Last year, approximately 166,620 infections and 42 deaths were reported. In 2022, around 367,730 illnesses and 140 deaths were registered. The number of cases was roughly 5 times higher than in 2021. Watch out for protection from mosquitoes, which are mostly diurnal. Vaccination is possible from February 2023.

Rabies

Vietnam

In the first two months of this year, 22 deaths have already been reported. There were 10 in the same period last year. Last year, a total of 82 people died of rabies infection. If you suspect contact with animals, you should consult a doctor immediately. Preventive vaccination is strongly recommended, especially if the risk is foreseeable and for longer stays. A referral from a doctor experienced in travel medicine should be provided well in advance of travel.

Bird flu

Vietnam

In March, a 21-year-old student fell ill and subsequently died. He used to catch wild birds. After a gap of more than 8 years, a 5-year-old girl fell ill with H5 influenza virus infection in October 2022. She ate meat from sick chickens and ducks. Between 2003 and 2014, a total of 128 people fell ill with influenza A (H5N1) across the country and 65 died. In all affected individuals, adequate animal contacts could be demonstrated. Since 2014, numerous outbreaks in domestic poultry have been recorded across the country with more than 129,000 animals killed. At the end of May last year, there was an outbreak in Quang Ngai province with about 1,700 sick ducks. Vaccination of poultry is widespread in the country. Outbreaks of influenza A(H5N6) have been repeatedly reported in poultry farms since 2014. Since the beginning of 2021, 3 outbreaks have already been reported in 2 provinces. No human illnesses have occurred so far.

Dear clients, Adacel/Adacel Polio/Boostrix Polio vaccines will be stocked in May. Due to high demand, there was an outage at the manufacturer.